Saturday, 20 December 2008

The Behaviour Of Interlocking Loadbearing Concrete Block Wall Subject To Concentric Loading

Malaysian Theses Online (MYTO)

Author: Mohamad Syazli Fathi
Title: The Behaviour Of Interlocking Loadbearing Concrete Block Wall Subject To Concentric Loading
Year: 2000
Type of Degree: Master of Engineering (Civil)
Call Number: TA670.M87 2000 raf
Location: Perpustakaan Sultanah Zanariah (PSZ) UTM

The Structure Behaviour Of Ungrouted Interlocking Block Wall Masonry.

Fathi, Nordin, Wan Abd. Karim and Mirasa (2004) The Structure Behaviour Of Ungrouted Interlocking Block Wall Masonry.: "The Structure Behaviour Of Ungrouted Interlocking Block Wall Masonry."

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Grouted and Ungrouted Hollw Interlocking mortarless Block Masonry System

Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Grouted and Ungrouted Hollow

Interlocking Block System

WAN MOHD NASRUDIN BIN WAN AB. KARIM — School of Graduate Studies, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia: "


Abstract :

This thesis concerns with a series of advanced experimental studies regarding the structural connections between cast-in-situ concrete slabs and interlocking load-bearing block walls. Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) has developed interlocking load-bearing blocks in two standard sizes, namely 400 x 200 x 150 mm and 300 x 150 x 150 mm. Before this, studies regarding the design properties of the block, compressive strength of prism and full-scale wall under concentric and eccentric loading was successfully conducted. The objective of this study is to ascertain the degree of the strength of the interlocking block wall – slab connections. The study also attempts to compare these strength values obtained from UTM interlocking block with other blocks, and to tabulate the structural behaviour of the blocks in terms of parameters such as axial load, block size and the structural nature of the wall itself – whether reinforced or unreinforced. The detailed experimental study involves the preparation of specimens, preparation of the necessary apparatus for testing purposes, preparation of detailed guidelines for the experimental"

Design 1965 Journal - VADS: the online resource for visual arts

Design 1965 Journal - VADS: the online resource for visual arts: Title: Industrialised building. Finding a winning system

Pages: 44 - 51

Author: Terence Bendixson

Text: (caption)
Condor's Portal Frame is designed expressly for enclosing huge spaces with the minimum of obstructing columns. The basic engineering design is ruthlessly pared down and very economic. If you do not care for the details it is bad luck.
Industrialised building
Finding a winning system
by Terence Bendixson
By far the most publicised change currently taking place in the building industry is the development of prefabricated kits of parts called 'industrialised building systems'. For some reason, these have caught the fancy of newspaper editors and hardly a month goes by without the national dailies showing the latest 'wonder building' - for which manfacturers invariably choose such names as Resicon, Trusscrete, Brownspan or some other etymological hybrid.Thisarticle,the second in a series on industrialised building,classifies the different systems in current use and describes their advantages and disadvantages.
Industrialised building systems have a long history. An early instance is the cast iron buildings that were shipped around Cape Horn to San Francisco in the 1849 gold rush. Paxton applied the same technology to the Crystal Palace, completed two years later, and by the second part of Queen Victoria's reign the idea had become sufficiently embedded in the culture for Trollope to refer quite non-commit/ally to an "iron church" in The Claverings.
By the 1930's, the growing number of car owners and gardeners living in Britain's quickly spreading suburbs (370,000 houses were built in the year ending March 1937) had called into being a new industry making primitively systematic garages and sheds, mostly in timber. After the second world war came prefabs, the least successful being made of aluminium in aircraftfactories on a swords-into-ploughshares basis, the more durable (which are with us still) having a broader technological base.
Scientific method
As I pointed out in the first article in this series (DESIGN 196/34-38), the development of systems is not the essence of building industrialisation, it is merely the result of applying scientific method to one part of the building process. The application of the same attitude to architectural design (the use of standard details and network analysis, for instance) and to the analysis of the building user's needs (sociology and ergonomics) is just as important.
This article will, however, primarily be concerned with building systems, and an effort will be made to sort them out. From a designer's point of view, one distinction immediately becomes apparent. A large number of systems are based on the exploitation of a single material, a completely different approach from those that are based on the analysis of human or social needs. Into the former category falI Alcoa's House of the Future, I C I's Plastics Developmen t House, The Steel Company of Wales and Richard Thomas & Baldwin's Ibis system, and the Wall Frame system by Bison Ltd (a subsidiary of Concrete Ltd). In all cases, the promoters were already in business as producers of a particular material and were searching around for new markets. (This is also the background to the French heavy concrete panel systems - Balancy, Coignet, Costa magna and so on. They were the outcome of a surplus of investment capital among cement producers.)
Two approaches
The user based systems are those such as CLASP, SCOLA, Wimpey No-Fines, Nenk (to be discussed in detail in a later article) and the Ministry of Housing's 5M and 12M systems. They show no evidence of any special effort to use one particular material. The criteria of selection have been cost and appropriateness to need. At the risk of treading on professional toes, there seem to be grounds for saying that the former is an engineer's approach, the resolution of a problem by proceeding on a narrow front, while the latter is an architect's approach, an attempt to synthesise all the factors affecting the problem.
Two other classifications that can be applied to building systems are function and the material of the main structure (which is at present generally concrete, steel or wood). Judging by the recently published Industrial Building Systems Annual 1965 (D ESI GN 199/68), the three most importantfunctions for which systems have been designed are schools, factories and housing. In some cases, the school systems also have more general applications as office buildings. This adaptability stems from the need to have a structure capable of forming spaces as different in size as gymnasia, class- rooms and staff of fices. At the same time, it must be usable up to several storeys and massive enough to provide good acoustic insulation between teaching rooms. It is debatable whether any single existing system meets all these requirements as well as does the skilful use of traditional techniques. Even the Ministry of Public Building and Works' Nenk, which was designed to meet a very broad brief - all the types of shelter required in a military barracks, a community with probably more diverse needs than a small town of comparable size - is not yet considered comparable with traditional construction. As Roger Walters and Ralph Iredale of the ministry's Directorate of Research and Development (which produced Nenk) said in their paper to the Royal Institute of British Architects, "We have a long way to go before architects can choose industrialised techniques for their economy in time and resources, and yet have the freedom of choice they really want"
The post war 'prefabs' represented an important experiment in the industrialisation of building. They were years ahead of their time in providing an integral approach to the fabric of the building and the fittings which went inside - an achievement which is seldom emulated in the housing systems currently available.
One of the many heavy concrete panel building systems available in Britain. This is a French development. Of particular interest are the storage walls. Four of these can be seen, complete with slots to take shelves. Also visible are the walls with plumbing runs and ventilation ducts cast into them. Holland and Hammer and Cubitts Ltd. the British licencees for Balancy, say that the walls and floors can be arranged to suit any layout. Following in the footsteps of Nottinghamshire, with its CLASP school building system, came a second consortium of local authorities called SCOLA, led by Shropshire. This is one of the first buildings to result Walberton and Binsted Primary School, built by West Sussex County architects department. All the window walls can be seen to have a rail at thigh height which protects the glass and provides a fixing for furniture. It can be seen in use in the interior photograph.
Prototype of a heavy concrete panel house designed by the London County Council architects department in conjunction with Taylor Woodrow Anglian Ltd. Concentration on systems for flats on the Continent has made it necessary for British architects and contractors to prod ace indigenous house systems. This one has concrete cross walls and gable ends with timber facade panels.
Choosing a system The reason for selecting industrial building systems in preference to traditional construction tends therefore to be because one factor, such as a shortage of time or of skilled labour dominates the contract, or because the people involved desire to experiment withoutany prompting from Government or the professions. Factory buildings, on the other hand, because of their comparatively simple nature, have been very widely systematised. When the brief is to build large uncluttered production areas as quickly as possible, prefabricated portal frames in steel or prestressed concrete are commercially very attractive (aesthetically, they include some of the best and worst examples of system building in the country).
However, two very distinct approaches are apparent in this field. In Britain, the tendency is toward stock structural solutions such as those in the Arcon or Condor catalogues. In the United States, on the other hand, a few designers and manufacturers seem to have reached a further stage in the development of an industrialised building philosophy. The designer designs a one-off solution of ruthlessly simple specification, and the suppliers to the building industry use the tremendous flexibility of modern machine tools to meet this demand for purpose-made buildings. A British example of this approach is the works of the Cummins Engine Co at Darlington, County Durham, designed by Eero Saarinen and Associates. It is a huge, flat roofed steel structure built up of standard sections. Its walls consist of no more than panes of tinted glass set into full height mullions with rubber gaskets. In Britain, this tailor-made approach to prefabricated construction has become common only in the pre-cast concrete wall panels of of flee buildings. These can now be ordered economically in virtually any shape, size or section required.
Exploded view of a system designed by Fry, Drew & Partners in conjunction with Barry High Ltd. The structure is entirely precast concrete, some of the panels being cast with a decoration resembling a folded curtain.
One of the most heavily backed systems in the country is John Laing's Jesperson, based on Danish technology. At present three fully automated plants are in prod action or under construction. The system is based on 4 ft wide four panels of variable span within 1 ft multiples. The wall units were originally made in three sizes but this is now being red aced to two, 4 ft and 8 ft wide. A typical structure/ plan is shown, rig kit, with its adaptation into a three room flat with non-structural partitions. A drawing of wall unit types complete with electric circuits is a/so shown, below right. The photographs are of the prototype Jesperson house in a re-development sponsored by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government at St Mary's, Oldham, Lancs.
It is, however, in the field of housing that the greatest hopes are generally held out for building systems in this country. This is not a rational hope - it is prompted by knowledge of a pressing need. The existence of powerful local authorities with large housing programmes, and in some cases consortia of them, as well as quasi Governmental agencies, such as new town development corporations, should provide the sure and steady market that a heavy capitalised industry needs. Hitherto, however, such factors as the low wages paid to building craftsmen, local authority contracts that offer no incentive to speed and productivity, and a Ministry of Housing and Local Government grant system that is not geared to the need for five year housing programmes, have all militated against the adoption of building systems. Now there are signs that these limitations are beginning to be recognised and that something may be done about them. What has been done Butthis should not conceal what has already been achieved. To take just three examples: Wimpey has built 125,000 dwellings using its primitive No Fines technology (concrete made with gravel alone, instead of sand and gravel); Laing has built 80,000 with Easiform in situ concrete cavity wall method; and, by far the most sophisticated, Bison has built or is building nearly 6,000 flats in over 100 blocks with its prefabricated Wall Frame system.
One additional reason for the slow adoption of systems in Britain is the widespread popularity of houses as opposed to flats. Houses are not intrinsically harder to systematise, but are affected by some special external factors. For instance, site irregularities, whether of contour or shape, often make a variety of house types desirable. Furthermore, there are difficulties in moving heavy components over soft ground. Tower cranes are useless because their working distance is quickly exceeded. However, progress is now being made in two directions. On the one hand, groups such as the Midlands Housing Consortium and the Yorkshire Development Group are using traditional materials within a strictly modular discipline. On the other, full prefabrication of houses is being got under way by the Ministry of Public Building and Works at Aldershot and by Livingstone Development Corporation near Edinburgh using Laing's AM Jesperson system. At the same time, the London County Council/Greater London Council expanded towns division is using the Taylor Woodrow Anglian systems (based on Larsen and Nielsen's Danish technique) at Haverhill in West Suffolk.
One way of industrialising building is to transfer work from the site to a factory. This has probably been taken further in Britain by Truscon Ltd than by any other firm in the heavy concrete field. Maisonettes are made up of 10 boxes of two sizes. All plumbing, wiring, painting and glazing are finished at the factory. An experimental block has been built in Manchester.
A lot of thought and effort has been given in some places to simplifying and speeding up traditional building methods. One example is the Mactrad house designed jointly by John Maclean of Wolverhampton, contractors, and the Timber Research and Development Association. The result is a marriage of prefabricated timber wall panels and roof trusses with brick veneer. Brick is used only for its excellent weathering qualities and in a cross wall because of its ability to block noise,
Five approaches to housing
In fact, a great variety of new technological-cum-economic approaches to housing construction is in evidence, and it is anyone's guess which will prove the most successful. Arthur Ling (former city architect and planning officer at Coventry and now Professorof Architecture and Civic Design at Nottingham University) has identified five major categories:
1 On-site mechanisation ranging from the use of cranes, fork-lift trucks and pumped cement to electric hammers. Such tools can equally well be applied to bricks and mortar construction as to prefabricated systems.
2 On-site factory production of medium sized elements such as Wates Ltd's technique for casting concrete wall and floor panels of various sizes in adjustable steel moulds. Ideally, such a production line is rayed down on what subsequently becomes one of the site service roads. The Building Research Station battery casting system being experimentally used at Edmonton, London, is another example of this approach. Wall panels are cast vertically in moulds that consist of an earlier batch of panels (experiments aimed at reducing the amount of jointing between panels are being done at the same time).
3 Off-site production of small and generally light weight elements, as in CLASP and SCOLA. Both consist of steel frame structures with timber carcassing to which a wide variety of facing materials such as tiles, lapped boarding and asbestos siding can be fixed. Both these systems are primarily for school construction as theirlightness is not well suited to housing.
4 Off-site production of medium sized elements. One example is the Bison Wall Frame system, a British development for multi-storey flats involving pre-cast, load-bearing concrete floorand wall members. Laing's 12M Jesperson system, a Danish technique, has been tailored to British requirements in collaboration with the Ministry of Housing, and permits a high level of architectural freedom in planning and appearance. The factories are highly mechanised.
5 Off-site factory production of whole rooms. This approach has been most thoroughly developed in the Soviet Union and is the least flexible of all methods from the point of view of both design and construction. The architect has to fit all the necessary functions into rigidly fixed boxes measuring perhaps 20ft long x9ft wide Deft high. The contractor is committed to using very powerful cranes running on tracks capable of turning only in large radii. Truscon Ltd is experimenting with a modified version of this approach in Britain.
The need for interchangeability The purpose of this article has been to show the variety of systems on the market and the differences in their philosophy. There is a positive jungle. Compared with the even calm that prevailed in the industry while the brick was king, this chaos is a setback. However, it is likely that a new order will grow out of the present confusion. The promoters of several systems, official and commercial, are emphatic that development must now proceed toward dimensions and joints that permit interchangeability. The Ministry of Public Building and Works' bulletins on dimensional co-ordination are one step in this direction. Economic pressures on the promoters of commercial systems are likely to support such a trend. To survive in a competitive market and get a return on their capital, private firms will need to sell every component they possibly can. One way of doing this is to supply them, not in packages as part of closed systems, but as enlarged bricks. A builder might then get concrete gable and cross wall panels from one maker, floor slabs from a second, and timber front and rear elevation panels from a third. Efforts to achieve this sort of interchangeability and its consequences for the furniture, household appliance and other industries will be discussed in some future articles in the series.
One of the contributions of the Building Research Station to improving building technique is the Humper. It can do the work of a fork lift truck, and carry and tip wet concrete. It is at present being made under licence.
Bison's Wall Frame system has been more widely used than any other method of building high flats on the market in Britain. The exploded drawing shows its simplicity. Judging by the appearance of the buildings completed, the result can be either pleasing or beastly depending on the skill of the architect.
A way of getting speedier building is to set up a factory on site. Wates Lid does this using large steel moulds to cast concrete panels. A development by the Building Research Station dispenses with steel moulds and uses concrete panels. Casting is done vertically. Starting with a mother and father panel, a child is cast between them. These are opened out and another cast between them, and so on.


Ahmad Baharuddin Abd. Rahman, Wahid Omar
Faculty of Civil Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia,
Skudai, Johor, MALAYSIA

ABSTRACT: The Industrialized Building Systems (IBS) Roadmap 2003-2010 published by the Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) outlines several well-thought strategies and aggressive steps to promote the use of IBS in Malaysia. The government is taking the leading role to persuade the construction industry to engage a more systematic approach and methodology in construction. It is a strategic change in the construction industry and the effort started in 1998. Besides the aim to gradually reduce the dependency on foreign labour and saves the country from losing out foreign exchange, IBS provides the opportunity for the players in the construction industry to develop a new image of the construction industry to be at par with other manufacturing industries such as car and electronic industries. With the present conventional methods of construction, the industry is always associated with many unprofessional practices. The adoption of IBS promises to elevate every level of the industry to a new height and image
of professionalism. By adopting IBS, efficient, clean, safe, professionally managed and handled by professionals and workers with relevant skills, proper coordination and management, precision, innovative and quality will be appeared as new attributes to be associated with the construction industry. The industry players are expected to venture internationally and one of the pre-requisite to compete globally is to offer quality, efficient and professional services and again IBS can be an excellent option. Although some of IBS have been introduced in Malaysia as early as in 1960’s, the industry as a whole seems quite reluctant to exploit the use of IBS. A recent survey carried out on the use of IBS in Malaysia reveals some of the issues and challenges, which require attention from different parties.


Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia

Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia:

Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia

by Yuosre F. Badir, (Res., Housing Res. Center, Fac. of Engrg., Univ. of Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; presently, Res. Assoc. at Logistics, Economic, and Mgmt. Unit (LEM), Civ. Engrg. Dept., Swiss Federal Inst. of Technol.-Lausanne EPFL, CH-1015, Lausanne, Switzerland. E-mail:, M. R. Abdul Kadir, (Assoc. Prof., Deputy Dean of Fac. of Engrg., and Assoc. Dir. of Housing Res. Center, Univ. of Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia), and Ahmed H. Hashim, (Doctor, Fac. of Human Ecology, Univ. of Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia)

Journal of Architectural Engineering, Vol. 8, No. 1, March 2002, pp. 19-23, (doi 10.1061/(ASCE)1076-0431(2002)8:1(19))

Download fulltext
Purchase Subscription
Permissions for Reuse
View Issue Table of Contents

Document type: Journal Paper
Abstract: Available literature indicates that considerable research efforts have been directed toward the “hardware elements” of the industrialized building systems technology. However, the hardware elements are only concerned with the structure itself. Nonetheless, to date, the “software elements” of the industrialized building systems, which are concerned with the data and information available on the system, users, clients, establishment of manufacturing and assembly layout and process, as well as allocation of resources and material, have received little attention. There is, therefore, a dire need to overcome the shortage in the software elements of the building system research. This paper reports a survey conducted on industrialized building system construction companies. The main objective is to present the building system technologies existing in Malaysia and to examine problems and constraints associated with these technologies.

Performance comparison between structural element of building systems in Malaysia | American Journal of Applied Sciences | Find Articles at BNET

Performance comparison between structural element of building systems in Malaysia | American Journal of Applied Sciences | Find Articles at BNET:

Performance comparison between structural element of building systems in Malaysia

American Journal of Applied Sciences, May, 2005 by M.R. Abdul Kadir, W.P. Lee, M.S. Jaafar, S.M. Sapuan, A.A.A. Ali

Abstract: The Industrialised Building System (IBS) was introduced in Malaysia in 1966, but it failed to establish itself on a continuous basis though there is a sustained large market for residential projects even since. One of the reasons behind this shortcoming is the lack of scientific data on labour productivity that could convince policy maker. Hence, the objective of this study is develop a standardised data collection methodology for measuring and comparing the conventional building system and IBS in term of labour productivity, crew size and cycle time. Labour productivity (manhours/[m.sup.2]) is defined as the manhours required to complete the structural element of one unit house. A total of 499 data points were obtained from seven residential projects constructed between January 2003 and April 2004. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) indicated that the labour productivity was significantly different between four structural building systems. The mean labour productivity for conventional building system was 4.20 manhours/[m.sup.2] followed by cast in-situ table form (2.70 manhours/[m.sup.2]), cast in-situ half tunnel form (1.88 manhours/[m.sup.2]) and precast concrete system (1.33 manhours/[m.sup.2]). Further, the analysis of crew size indicated that the mean crew size for conventional building system of 24 workers was significantly different from the IBS of 22 workers. However, the crew size within the IBS was found to be insignificant. The cycle time measured in days per house was found to be significantly different between structural building systems with the conventional building system of 4.9 days, cast in-situ table form of 3.9 days, cast in-situ half tunnel form of 2.9 days and precast concrete system of 2.3 days. The labour productivity obtained from this study could be used as a preliminary guideline for client or consultant to identify the most appropriate building system for executing a construction project and determining the labour requirement in the construction industry.

IBS Training by CIDB

Further details:

Industrialised timber frame housing: managing customisation, change, and information

Industrialised timber frame housing: managing customisation, change, and information:

Industrialised timber frame housing: managing customisation, change, and information

Bergström, Max

Samhällsbyggnad / Träbyggnad

The overall aim of this thesis is to develop an increased understanding of industrialised timber frame housing (timber frame housing construction fully or partially conducted in a controlled environment utilising industrial processes and machinery). Of specific interest is how industrialised timber frame housing companies manage customisation, change, and information.

Three single case studies (at a medium-sized industrialised timber frame housing company), one multiple-case study, and one survey were conducted. The first single case study investigates how production can benefit from integrating a customer-oriented design and production. The second single case study illustrates the shift towards an enterprise resource planning (ERP) approach through a change process. The third single case study describes the ERP system implementation. The multiple-case study investigates the prospects and pitfalls among four small and medium-sized industrialised timber frame housing companies that manufacture complex products utilising advanced prefabrication. The survey, conducted among the vast majority of industrialised timber frame housing companies in Sweden, presents the industry structure and investigates the benefits and disadvantages of ERP.

The results demonstrate that matching customer requirements and an industrialised building system is facilitated through product and process development. Other findings suggest that ERP can meet the needs of industrialised timber frame housing, promote an organisation to be re- engineered through comprehensive change, and act as a driver for a more efficient internal and external supply chain. However, a lack of history regarding information technology (IT) systems for production processes and the timing of the system selection in the overall ERP adoption are both critical for the ERP system implementation outcome. With no previous history of IT systems for production processes, an ERP system implementation is a big step even if it is carefully conducted. Industrialised timber frame housing has increased in popularity on the market over the last years. An important reason for this is the increased customer focus. However, blind customer focus leads to poor utilisation of resources. By balancing customer orientation with internal efficiency, achieving an effective construction process seems possible. Communication between different actors in the construction process, finding a reasonable level of customer focus, and capacity limitations are current problem areas with the potential for improvement. Possible ways of improving the construction process are an increased integration between actors, a gradual increase in IT support, and finding the balance between project and process orientation. The survey demonstrates low ERP usage in industrialised timber frame housing with a low degree of strategic importance, while there are operational and managerial benefits. The results also show the potential of the ERP approach for industrialised timber frame housing, while its use is favoured by an increased maturity in IT.

The overall results show that customer orientation, change, and information management are important ingredients in industrialised timber frame housing. Customer orientation can act as a driver for change and for improved information management. Changes in business processes are needed to facilitate customisation and information management. Information management has a key role in the entire construction process to facilitate customisation, while the need of efficient information management can act as a driver for change.

ISSN 1402-1544 / ISRN LTU-DT--04/45--SE / NR 2004:45

Doctoral thesis / 2004:45

Hämta PDF ( PDF 9314 kb )

MBAM - Industrialised Building System

MBAM - Industrialised Building System:

Print E-mail
  • To study and promote the use of Industrialised Building System (IBS) and Modular Coordination (MC) in the construction industry.
  • To participate, provide inputs and interact with industry partners and policy-making authority in formulating design-and-build directions for the industry.

Manufactured Log Homes

Manufactured Log Homes:

Manufactured Log Homes

© 2008, Kenton Shepard

Manufactured (sometimes called "milled") log homes are built using wall logs which have been milled to a uniform diameter and shape. 8 inches is typical, but logs anywhere from 6 to 12 inches are not unusual. Manufactured log home may or may not be chinked.

Typical manufactured home look, logs of identical size and shape

Log Profiles

Interface Profiles

Logs often have an interface profile milled into the top and bottom which allows each log to interlock with logs in the rounds above and below. Interlocking profiles add strength to the wall and help prevent air leakage, moisture intrusion and insect infiltration.

Reveal Profiles

Manufactured logs also have reveal profiles. Reveal profiles are the architectural profile of the exposed log interior or exterior walls. Reveal profiles are typically round or flat on the interior, but may also be beveled on the exterior

Here is a chart of common interface and reveal profiles…



“D”-shaped logs are commonly-used reveal profiles. They allow the installation of a conventional interior wall covering such as drywall while maintaining the log look at the exterior.

Note the tongue and groove profile designed to interlock with logs in the rounds above and below.


This “D” log profile is designed to use a spline between log rounds which fits into grooves milled into the log top and bottom. At the extension the groove will catch moisture and should be probed for decay.

Swedish Cope

This is one of the most common log profiles. Inspectors should watch for and call as a defect logs installed upside down so that the grooves catch water.

Inspectors will often see much shorter log sections used in manufactured homes than are used in handcrafted homes. While logs continuous from corner to corner are desireable, the inspector must show cause to call this out as a defect. "Cause" might be a failure in the wall, a code or engineering with which the home is required to comply which states a minimum log length.

Typically, the log length would recieve no comment in the inspection report on a manufactured home.

Laminated Logs

Laminated logs are manufactuered by gluing dimensional lumber together to form a laminated beam, similar to a GluLam and milling the resulting beam to a log profile.


All photos not cited are by Kenton Shepard

For more details or to schedule an inspection, Contact the Log Home Inspector!

Industrialised Building Systems Vertical extension of existing buildings by use of light gauge steel framing systems and 4D CAD tools


Susan Bergsten
Luleå University of Technology
Division of Structural Engineering
Steel Structures
Luleå, April 2005


Extending buildings vertically is fraught with technical and managerial problems. Inevitably, many of these types of buildings will be located in areas with access restrictions and other physical constraints on the movement of materials, components, operatives and equipment. Industrialised construction methods and prefabrication could be a practical alternative to traditional construction methods for vertical extension projects. Industrialised construction methods are not much used in refurbishment projects and in this research project a case study with five vertical extensions projects is made. In this case study the extent of usage of prefabrication in these projects is studied. How these vertical extension projects have been conducted as regards to material handling and logistics planning are also studied.

Furthermore, the potential for utilising light-gauge steel framed system and its industrialised construction methods in Sweden is evaluated. This has been done by studying two projects, in which industrialised construction methods have been used. The use of light-gauge steel framed systems represents a practical and cost-effective solution to the problems created by these buildings. However, material handling and other logistical problems mean that the construction process is less than certain. A part of the study aims to understand the benefits from 4D CAD.
This research has three main areas, industrialised building methods with light-gauge steel framing system, vertical extension of existing buildings and 4D CAD. The results will include experiences from the studied cases and a comparison of the benefits over more traditional means for design and construction management when erecting vertical extensions to existing buildings.



SpringerLink - Journal Article

SpringerLink - Journal Article:
Journal Article Printable view

Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia

Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia:

Industrialized Building Systems Construction in Malaysia

J. Arch. Engrg. Volume 8, Issue 1, pp. 19-23 (March 2002)

Issue Date: March 2002

Yuosre F. Badir,1 M. R. Abdul Kadir,2 and Ahmed H. Hashim3
1Researcher, Housing Research Center, Faculty of Engineering, Univ. of Putra Malaysia, UPM, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
2Associate Professor, Deputy Dean of Faculty of Engineering and Associate Director of Housing Research Center, Univ. of Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.
3Doctor, Faculty of Human Ecology, Univ. of Putra Malaysia, 43400, UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

Available literature indicates that considerable research efforts have been directed toward the "hardware elements" of the industrialized building systems technology. However, the hardware elements are only concerned with the structure itself. Nonetheless, to date, the "software elements" of the industrialized building systems, which are concerned with the data and information available on the system, users, clients, establishment of manufacturing and assembly layout and process, as well as allocation or resources and material, have received little attention. There is therefore a dire need to overcome the shortage in the software elements of the building system research. This paper reports a survey conducted on industrialized building system construction companies. The main objective is to present the building system technologies existing in Malaysia and to examine problems and constraints associated with these technologies.

©2002 American Society of Civil Engineers

ScienceDirect - Automation in Construction : Industrialised building systems: reproduction before automation and robotics

ScienceDirect - Automation in Construction : Industrialised building systems: reproduction before automation and robotics:

Purchase the full-text article

Roger-Bruno RichardE-mail The Corresponding Author

École d'architecture, Université de Montréal, C.P. 6128, succursale Centre-ville, Montréal (Québec), Canada H3C 3J7

Available online 19 November 2004.


To deliver quality architecture to the vast majority of people, the building industry should move to full industrialization. Industrialization is basically the aggregation of a large market to divide into fractions the investment in strategies and technologies capable, in return, of simplifying the production and therefore reducing the costs. Simplification is the goal. Whereas the first four degrees of industrialization (i.e., prefabrication, mechanization, automation, robotics) remain at the level of duplicating the traditional construction processes, the fifth degree, reproduction, seeks innovative processes capable of short-cutting the repetitive linear operations of craftsmanship nature. A methodology can be extrapolated from the analogical model of printing (from the electronic printed circuit to the printed plumbing core). Adopting this methodology implies three steps: (i) generating the geometry of the product from the performance criteria; (ii) selecting a process that can simplify the materialisation; and (iii) designing the product accordingly. The load-bearing service core offers a relevant case study of that methodology: the space is distributed between the served and serving areas, the latter being concentrated into a value-added factory-made module capable of generating diversified building types.

Keywords: Industrialization; Reproduction; Served and serving spaces; Analogical model; Performance criteria; Building Systems; Process–product interaction; Load-bearing service core

Simulation of Industrialised Building System components production - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository

Simulation of Industrialised Building System components production - Universiti Teknologi Malaysia Institutional Repository:

Simulation of Industrialised Building System components production

Marsono, Abdul Kadir and Md. Tap, Masine and Ng, Soon Ching and Makhtar, Ahmad Mahir (2006) Simulation of Industrialised Building System components production. In: 6th Asia-Pacific Structural Engineering and Construction Conference, 5-6 September 2006, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

[img]PDF (Full text) - Requires a PDF viewer such as GSview, Xpdf or Adobe Acrobat Reader


The construction of IBS building should starts with the production of the IBS components and the production process is the main activity concerned in the IBS production plant. Having an optimum production line to manufacture the required IBS elements within targeted time and limited number of reusable steel mould is very important. In this study, workstation organization method has been adopted in the production of IBS component of beam and column. Witness 2001 simulation software has been used to model and simulate the most optimum production line set up. Here, two production lines set up have been proposed to complete the production of IBS beam and column between two and three months time with limited number of reusable steel mould to supply for the construction of medium size single storey IBS housing project ranging from 100 to 300 units. A contingency production line set up which able to complete the production of required IBS components within a month time with increased number of reusable steel mould has also been proposed. Number of resources such as workstation, tool, storage area and labour has been determined from the proposal. The proposed production line can be applied in the planning and cost estimating of IBS production plant set up.

Past Conference on IBS


"The construction industry has for many years maintained the time-tested but labour intensive traditional approach in construction and investing little in research and development. As the K-economy enters its stride into the new millennium, technological advances shall play a major role in changing the competitive work environment in the construction industry. Concurrently, as the demand for production and quality increases, the construction industry must indulge itself in innovations and be supportive of new technological techniques in construction. It is believed that the implementations of Industrialised Building System (IBS) in most countries have endured the high expectations from consumers.

Hence, the 3-Day International Conference on Industrialised Building System shall be an opportunity for the sharing of experiences in areas related to research, development and construction.The theme for this Conference IBS2003, is Global Trends In Research, Development and Construction. IBS2003 is toprovide a platform for the interaction amongst experts, researchers, designers, builders, developers and policy makers from allover the world for appraisal of latest developments in Industrialised Building Systems and for the identification of further programmes for the propagation of industrialized construction as the preferred mode of quality construction."


A Strategic Framework in Transforming Traditional Contractor to IBS

Industrialised Building System: A Strategic Framework in Transforming Traditional Contractor to IBS:

About the Research

Industrialized Building Systems (IBS) or off-site construction has been introduced to cope with a growing demand of affordable housing, solving issues associated with foreign workers and improving image, quality and productivity of construction related services in Malaysia. Prior that, IBS Roadmap 2003-2010 has been published by the Government of Malaysia to guide the practitioners, government agencies and professional bodies with the strategies and implementation plan. Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP 2006-2015) has also higlighted the important of IBS under Strategic Thrust 5. Nevertheless, despite the plausible advantages and strong support from the government, IBS adoption in Malaysia has yet to obtain a good response. This research is one of the innitiative by Construction Research Institute of Malaysia (CREAM) and Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) Malaysia to benchmark best practice in those Critical Success Factors of IBS companies in UK and Europe. The research is in collaboration with the University of Salford where one of CREAM staff will be based there to collect the data. The research started on July 2008 and will be completed in July 2011. The aims of the research are to identify the gaps between G7 contractors in Malaysia and IBS housebuilders in UK trough a comprehensive Benchmarking study and provide constructive recommendations to transform G7 contractors in Malaysia to be an IBS ready contractors.


Industrialized Building Systems for Housing - The MIT Press

Industrialized Building Systems for Housing - The MIT Press

From The MIT Press Classics Series:
Industrialized Building Systems for Housing
Edited by Albert G. H. Dietz and Laurence S. Cutler

Table of Contents and Sample Chapters

The editors of this informative volume assert that "The United States today—at a time when more housing is needed than ever—does not exploit existing building technologies to the fullest. The tools are available, but the constraints are an obstacle. The latter can only be overcome by a determined, concerted effort by all elements of the building industry."

The increasing importance of industrialized building, as the demand for housing accelerates and outstrips the capacity of traditional construction methods to provide it, is highlighted by this book, whose very publication should give new impetus to the indus- trialized building trend. Based on two special summer programs held at M.I.T., it contains contributions from experts in areas ranging from urban politics to systems analysis and materials technology. It offers a strict examination of the underlying principles involved in industrialization and the types of building systems now evolving, particularly in housing. Building by such methods demands the total integration of all subsystems and components into an overall process utilizing industrialized production, transportation, and assembly techniques. The principles uncovered are applied to the development and use of specific systems and techniques both in the United States and abroad. These include monolithic systems (boxes), panels, frames, mobile homes, mechanical units and components, and such special construction techniques as the use of lift slabs and slipforms.

In addition to the developing technology, the book also examines the "morphology of systems and urbanization." Basic policies are proposed which need to be set at a national level if the supply of housing is to keep effectively abreast of local needs. An effort is made to face the problem in its totality and to suggest integrated solutions that recognize such diverse factors as the principles of design, performance standards, the effect of building codes, volume production, building modules, the problems of evaluation, the introduction of innovation, governmental policy, labor, and finally, the necessary organization for production. Examples of existing industrialized systems are discussed in relation to these factors in some detail and are illustrated with numerous photographs.

About the Editors

Albert G. H. Dietz is Professor Emeritus of Building Engineering at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.

December 1971
7 x 10, 272 pp.
$35.00/£22.95 (PAPER)


Other Editions
Cloth (1971)

IBS | Official Portal of CIDB Malaysia

IBS | Official Portal of CIDB Malaysia:

The Industrialised Building Systems (IBS) is a construction process that utilises techniques, products, components, or building systems which involve prefabricated components and on-site installation. From the structural classification, there are five IBS main groups identified as being used in this country, and these are:

Pre-cast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems
Pre-cast columns, beams, slabs, 3-D components (balconies, staircases, toilets, lift chambers), permanent concrete formwork, etc;

Pre-cast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box Systems
Pre-cast columns, beams, slabs, 3-D components (balconies, staircases, toilets, lift chambers), permanent concrete formwork, etc;

Steel Formwork Systems
Tunnel forms, beams and columns moulding forms, permanent steel formworks (metal decks, etc;

Steel Framing Systems
Steel beams and columns, portal frames, roof trusses, etc;

Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems
Timber frames, roof trusses, etc;

Block Work Systems
Interlocking concrete masonry units (CMU), lightweight concrete blocks, etc.

The use of IBS assures valuable advantages such as the reduction of unskilled workers, less wastage, less volume of building materials, increased environmental and construction site cleanliness and better quality control, among others.

These advantages also promote a safer and more organised construction site, and reduces the completion time of construction. Many world-class Malaysian developers have chosen IBS over the conventional methods for important projects such as the Petronas Twin Towers, Putrajaya, KL Sentral and KLIA.

IBS Publications

IBS Roadmap
IBS Survey 2003

IBS Sizing Guide
Precast Concrete

Component for Housing Building

IBS Catalogue Prefabricated Timber

Component for Building Work 2004/2005

IBS Catalogue Precast Concrete

Component for Building Work 2004/2005

IBS Catalogue Precast Concrete

Component for Building Work 2004/2005

IBS Catalogue Precast Concrete Building

Component for Building Work 2004/2005

CIS 3:2005

Standard perumahan kebangsaan bagi perumahan kos rendah sederhana selain rumah pangsa

CIS 4: 2005

Standard perumahan kebangsaan perumahan kos sederhana rendah rumah pangsa

CIS 6: 2005

Quality assurance for treatment of timber roof trusses with copper-chrome-arsenic preservatives

Guide for IBS Modular Design